Sensory-motor integration Questions

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 Sensory-motor integration Questions

1-     Describe two main differences between ‘Lower motor neurons’ and upper motor neurons’.

2-     Name four reflexes that are organized by the spinal cord.

3-     Describe three functions of muscle spindle and stretch reflexes.

4-     Describe two functions of Golgi tendon organ and related reflex.

5-     What is the role of ‘lateral inhibition’ in the neural network that organizes the ‘withdrawal reflex’?

6-     Describe the origin and function of “Corticospinal (pyramidal) tract (pathway)”.

7-     Describe the concept of ‘topographical organization (representation) of the motor cortex’.

8-     Describe the consequence of “damage to motor cortex”.

9-     Considering the major subdivisions of cerebellum, describe the anatomical definition and function of the “Vestibulocerebellum”.

10-  Considering the major subdivisions of cerebellum, describe the anatomical definition and function of the “Spinocerebellum”.

11-  Considering the major subdivisions of cerebellum, describe the anatomical definition and function of the “Cerebrocerebellum”.

12-  Describe four deficits that result from damage to the cerebellum.

13-  Regarding the proposed models of Basal ganglia function, describe the “Direct” and “Indirect” pathways and the neurotransmitters that are involved in theses pathways.

14-  Describe the possible cause of Parkinson’s disease. Describe three deficits in Parkinson’s disease. Name two approaches to manage/alleviate the deficits associated with Parkinson’s disease.

15-  Describe two functions of the basal ganglia in motor control.

16-  Describe the main characteristics of mirror neurons (Definition and location in brain regions). Describe two possible functions of the mirror neurons.

“Vision” and “Language” Questions:

 

  1. Describe the distribution of rods and cones across the retina.
  1. Drawn a diagram of the main types of neurones in the retina, how they connect to each other, and how they are organised into layers.
  1. Explain what spectral sensitivity functions of photoreceptors are.
  1. Describe light and dark adaptation.
  1. Explain the basics of phototransduction.
  1. Explain the process of convergence and how it differs for rods versus cones.
  1. Explain the process of convergence and how it affects sensitivity and acuity.
  1. Explain the concept of a receptive field in the visual system.
  1. Describe a typical retinal cell’s receptive field.
  1. Describe the circuit responsible for lateral inhibition, and the role lateral inhibition plays in edge detection.
  1. Draw a diagram of the connections from left and right eye to LGN to V1.
  1. Explain how the layered structure of the LGN is related to cell types in the retina and to the dorsal and ventral cortical pathways.
  1. Describe the response properties of simple and complex V1 cells.
  1. Describe the functional/anatomical organization of V1, including orientation columns, ocular dominance columns, and the retinotopic map.
  1. Explain how the concepts of convergence, receptive field size, acuity, and cortical magnification relate to each other.
  1. Contrast the roles of the dorsal and ventral visual pathways.
  1. Provide descriptions of the proposed role of areas V4, MT, inferior temporal cortex, and posterior parietal cortex to visual processing.
  1. Describe the effects of lesions of areas V1, MT, and posterior parietal cortex in humans.
  1. Explain the concepts of direction selectivity and direction columns, and identify where in the cortex these are found.
  1. Define blindsight.
  1. Describe development of ocular dominance stripes
  2. -How do the projections from the two eyes to layer 4 become segregated into stripes?
  3. -How are synaptic inputs from the two eyes combined onto single cells, outside layer 4?
  4. -Effects of deprivation on ocular dominance stripes
  5. -Characterise anatomical and physiological aspects of ocular dominance plasticity
  6. -Describe critical period plasticity
  7. -Describe strabismus and amblyopia
  8. -Describe role of glutamate receptors in ocular dominance plasticity

Gustation and olfaction

  1. -Describe primary sensations of taste, threshold for taste and taste blindness
  2. Describe structure of taste buds, their different types, location and function
  3. -Describe transduction mechanisms for taste and olfaction.
  4. -Describe pathways for transmission of taste and olfactory signals into the CNS
  5. -Describe adaptation and cross adaptation for taste and olfaction
  6. -Describe structure and function of olfactory membrane
  7. -Describe population coding for olfaction

Auditory system Questions:

  1. Describe three physical properties of sound waves and their perceptual correlates.
  2. Describe the range of sound frequencies that a normal young human can perceive. Is perceiving sound frequency related to its intensity?
  3. What is the function of ‘PINNA’ in hearing sounds?
  4. What is the function of ‘TYMPANIC MEMBRANE’ in hearing sounds?
  5. Describe ‘impedance matching’ and how middle ear structures contribute to that.
  6. What is the main function of middle ear Ossicles in hearing sounds?
  7. Describe the “Acoustic reflex” and the role of middle ear muscles.
  8. Describe the role of “Eustachian tube” in hearing sounds.
  9. What is the meaning of “characteristic frequency” of the basilar membrane?
  10. Describe how hair cells on the Corti organ transduce sound into neural signals.
  11. Describe and compare two characteristics of the inner and outer hair cells.
  12. What is the meaning of “Place code” in transducing sound into neural signals?
  13. Describe the following diagram which shows the activation of basilar membrane and an auditory afferent nerve fibre.
  14. Describe two mechanisms for the “Determination of Loudness”.
  15. What is the meaning of tonotopic organization of auditory cortex?
  16. Describe the difference between “what” and “where” pathways in the auditory system.
  17. Describe two mechanisms for perceiving the left–right location of sound.
  18. Describe a mechanism for perceiving the up–down location of sound.
  19. Describe a mechanism for perceiving the distance of sound.
  20. Describe how semi-circular canals contribute to the control of balance/posture.
  21. Describe how Utricle & Saccule contribute to the control of balance/posture.
  22. Name three brain areas that receive information from the vestibular system.
  23. Please provide a definition of “language function”.
  24. Describe three features of Broca’s aphasia.
  25. Describe three features of Wernicke’s aphasia.
  26. Describe three features of conduction aphasia.
  27. Describe four brain regions that are activated during language comprehension-production (repeating heard words).
  28. Describe “dorsal” and “ventral” pathways as the neural substrate of language.