Solved NUR241 Assessment 2: Case Study

Whitney, a 34-year-old woman who postponed pregnancy in her 20s has now been trying to get pregnant for several years. Her husband had a son during a prior marriage. She consults her gynaecologist for work-up of her infertility. Relevant history includes menarche at age 13; five lifetime sex partners; cyclic mensesregularly every 30 days; no birth control for 2 years; no pelvic examination in 5 years.
She reports no smoking and no intravenous drug abuse.
The attending gynaecologist recommends a cervical screening workup, which returns a cervical smear diagnosis of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, and a human papillomavirus (HPV) assay positive for HPV serotype 16. Colposcopy reveals a friable, vascular lesion on the anterior uterine cervix, a biopsy is taken which shows severe dysplasia (CIN III).

Please answer the following TWO questions:
1. Describe pathophysiology of cervical cancer. What risk factors can you identify in Whitney’s case? (150 words approx.)

Cervical cancer is a kind of growth that takes place in the cervix cells located at the lower section of the uterus. It is the most known cancer in women and highly preventable by a vaccine and frequent Pap smear checkup. There are Over 270,000 deaths from this type of cancer per year (Harmatz & Shediac, 2017). In Whitney’s case, the risk factors identified are the infection by human papillomavirus which is the utmost risk factor for cervical cancer. HPV spreads from one person to another through sexual activity (Natphopsuk, 2012). Sexual history is also another risk factor, having many sexual partners, and in this case, Whitney had five sex partners risked her in getting cervical cancer. Routine Pap smear screening and HPV vaccine can prevent the risk of cervical cancer. In this case, Whitney had no pelvic examination for about five years which puts her at risk…Read more


Harmatz, P., & Shediac, R. (2017). Mucopolysaccharidosis VI: pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed)22(8), 385-406.

Natphopsuk, S., Settheetham-Ishida, W., Sinawat, S., Pientong, C., Yuenyao, P., & Ishida, T. (2012). Risk factors for cervical cancer in northeastern Thailand: detailed analyses of sexual and smoking behavior. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev13(11), 5489-5495.

2. Why has cervical screening changed from two to five years in Australia? Provide scientific rationale for the new guidelines. (250 words approx.)


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